Foot Deformities Overview: Triggers, Types, and Treatment
What is foot deformities? In what diseases is it indicated? Primarily, it is the hallux valgus or bunion that consists of a deviation of the first toe, to the point of causing the overlap of the first and second toes. Surgical foot deformities treatment is the only practical solution to solve this problem. The operation can be definitive, provided that, after the intervention, deforming shoes are no longer used. It is performed under regional, general or spinal anesthesia and can be done following different procedures, depending on the magnitude of the problem and the number of issues that must be treated.
How is the Foot Deformities Treatment Performed?
The most commonly used method at this time is called the inverted V distal metatarsal osteotomy and consists of the section of the metatarsal head, one of the five long bones that make up the foot skeleton. Among the possible complications of an unsatisfactory result of the surgical operation are the incomplete correction of the deformity and the recurrence of hallux valgus. After the deformities treatment, recovery is very adaptable and usually does not require rest. In general, you can walk immediately, with some fissure depending on the type of operation. The postoperative period can last up to a month and a half or more, but it is usually very comfortable.
What are the Causes?
The most frequent cause is an imbalance of the muscles of the fingers. This imbalance can be caused by a biomechanical problem, or by the excessive use of short, tight and tapered shoes. This type of footwear will cause the foot to shrink the fingers to enter the shoe, and that is what would produce the muscle imbalance.
What Kind of Foot Deformities Treatments are there?
If the deformity is mild and there is no callus, the foot deformities treatment would be to perform a biomechanical exploration to find the appropriate ortho-prosthetic solution whether you are silicones or templates. If there is callus, the procedure would be the elimination of it. Then we must assess the mobility of the joint, perform a biomechanical exploration and depending on the severity and type of deformation, propose a surgical intervention.
Some Foot Deformities are:
- Flat Foot
Deformity characterized by the sinking of the plantar vault by subluxation of the talus-scaphoid and/or scaphoid-cuneiform joint, accompanied by pronation of the retro pie and supination of the forefoot.
- Foot Valgo
External deviation of the axis of the calcaneus in the frontal plane with the sole facing outwards.
- Pie Dig
Deformity characterized by an increase in the height of the plantar arch.
- Pie Cavo-Valgo
It is a peculiar variety of flat foot in which the sinking of the plantar vault is due to a valgus deviation of the hindfoot without alteration of the astragalo-scaphoid or scaphoid-cuneiform joints.
- Hallux Rigidus
Arthritic degeneration of the first metatarsal-phalangeal joint with progressive reduction of flexion-extension of the same.
Pain located at the plantar level of the forefoot on the metatarsal heads.
Pain located at the plantar or posterior level of the calcaneus, or inflammatory, neurological or mechanical origin due to an overload of the insertion of tendinous or aponeurotic structures of the retro pie.
- Hammer Toe
Flexion deformity of the proximal or distal interphalangeal joint of a finger.
- Paralytic Foot
Foot deformity is resulting from loss of movement due to neurological disorders that cause paralysis of muscle groups with insertion in the bones of the foot.
- Diabetic Foot
Set of sequelae at the cutaneous, vascular, and neurological and bone level that can be found in the feet of diabetic patients, as a consequence of a lack of control of the metabolic picture.
- Rheumatic Foot
Inflammatory or degenerative diseases of the feet that recognize systemic pathogenesis of a rheumatic nature.
- Equine Foot
Deformity or attitude of the foot that is characterized by a plantar flexion of the ankle with fall of the forefoot.
- Club Foot
Congenital deformity of the foot. There are three native varieties: Equine-varus-supinated (the most frequent), talo-valgus (with resolution almost always spontaneous), vertical talus (which has worse prognosis).
An abnormal bone union between two or more bones of the foot.
- Hallux Valgus (bunions)
Forefoot deformity characterized by a deviation in Varus of the first metatarsal and valgus of the 1st finger, with the prominence of the head of the first bunion. It is one of the most common deformities in the foot of the adult and with a higher incidence in women. Probably influenced by:
- Unsuitable footwear
- Hormonal disorders (menopause)
The Following Situations Will be of Particular Concern:
- The delay in self-correcting mechanisms.
- The deformation of a single leg.
- The appearance of these deformities outside the stages of development that we have indicated.